Identification of the functional food potency of çalkama: A traditional recipe with edible Mediterranean wild greens from Turkish cuisine
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BACKGROUND: The phytochemical contents of traditional foods are necessary to further elucidate the impacts of the Mediterranean diet on health. Calkama is traditional food prepared by using wild green plants including chard (Beta vulgaris var.cicl), wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare spp), common mellow (Malva sylvestris L), common poppy (Papaver rhoeas L), dock (Rumex spp), common nettle (Urtica dioica L), sow-thistle (Sonchus asper (L) Hill), common stork's bill (Erodium circutarium (L)L Her) and wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum L). OBJECTIVE: In this research, the antioxidant activity and the flavonoid and phenolic acid composition were separately analyzed for each plant and calkama. METHODS: Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and total antioxidant capacity of each plant and calkama were measured spectrophotometric assays. Ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) was performed to detect specific flavonoid groups. RESULTS: It was detected that one portion of calkama (100 g) contained approximately 250 mg of flavonoids. Particularly, quercetin and apigenin contributed to the main flavonoid source and chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid in calkama. CONCLUSIONS: According to our findings, this food can be considered as a good phenolic and flavonoid source which protects its high antioxidant capacity through preparation and cooking processes.
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